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Outcome in 55 dogs with pulmonic stenosis that did not undergo balloon valvuloplasty or surgery.
Francis, A. J., Johnson, M. J. S., Culshaw, G. C., Corcoran, B. M., Martin, M. W. S. and French, A. T. (2011) Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52: 282–28
Prognosis for dogs with pulmonic stenosis that did not have definitive treatment.
Pulmonic stenosis is one of the more common congenital cardiac abnormalities of dogs. Severity of stenosis, which causes a higher pressure gradient across the valve, is thought to be related to prognosis. This paper looked at cases of pulmonic stenosis in two referral centres in the UK between 1997 and 2008. 55 cases which were confirmed on Doppler and B mode echocardiography to have the condition, but which then did not go on to have definitive treatment with either surgery or balloon valvuloplasty, were included in this paper. Dogs with significant concurrent cardiac defects were excluded, but dogs with tricuspid regurgitation were included. Severity of stenosis was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the pressure gradients across the valve. The authors found that severe stenosis, and the presence of tricuspid regurgitation, were independent predictors of cardiac death. A pulmonic pressure gradient of more than 60mmHg was associated with an 86% sensitivity and 71% specificity of predicting cardiac-related death.
Bottom line: This paper gives useful information on the probability of cardiac-related death in cases of pulmonic stenosis that are not treated with balloon valvuloplasty or surgery.
The association between the signalment, common causes of canine otitis externa and pathogens.
James, D. J., Griffin, C. E., Polissar, N. L. and Neradilek, M. B. (2011) Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52: 254–258
Otitis externa in dogs
Otitis externa is a common dermatological condition, with consequences ranging from mild acute pruritus to chronic pain. This study examined the medical records of 149 dogs to determine whether an association could be found between the disease, and pathogens, allergies, conformational abnormalities and signalment. The authors found the Shar Pei, German Shepherd and Cocker Spaniel to be over-represented. Most dogs over 5 years of age when diagnosed with otitis externa had cocci-shaped organisms isolated, and also had higher levels of rods than younger dogs. Rods were also found more often in dogs with endocrinopathies, while Malassezia was found more often in dogs with allergies.
Bottom line: This study showed that otitis externa may be more severe in older dogs and dogs with endocrinopathies.
Axial Pattern Flap Based on a Cutaneous Branch of the Facial Artery in Cats.
Milgram, J., Weiser, M., Kelmer, E. and Benzioni, H. (2011) Veterinary Surgery, 40: 347–351
Evaluation of an axial pattern flap based on the facial artery of cats
This ex vivo study was performed on 12 cat cadavers, to assess whether an axial flap based on the cutaneous portion of the facial artery was viable surgical technique. The common carotid artery was infused with methylene blue to identify the facial artery, and then the facial artery was selectively infused with methylene blue. The extent of blue colouration of the skin was then evaluated on the contralateral side, after injection of methylene blue into the facial artery on that side. The results showed perfusion of the skin by the facial artery from the lower eyelid dorsally, to the angularis oris cranially, and the wing of the atlas caudally. A skin flap of 6cm x3.4cm based on the first caudally directed cutaneous branch of the facial artery was found to be well-perfused, and this flap was found to be viable when performed in a clinical case.
Bottom line: The facial artery flap can be used to repair skin defects of the head of cats.
Postoperative Mortality in Cats After Ureterolithotomy.
Roberts, S. F., Aronson, L. R. and Brown, D. C. (2011) Veterinary Surgery, 40: 438–443
Mortality in cats after surgery for ureterolithiasis
Ureterolithiasis is a potentially life threatening blockage of the ureter, which in some cases requires surgical management. This retrospective case series of 47 cats aimed to identify the pre-operative risk factors associated with mortality in cats which had undergone single or multiple ureterotomy to treat ureteral obstruction due to calculi. The survival to discharge after ureterolithotomy was 79%. It was found that over 79% of cats were azotaemic before surgery, and that 94% had evidence of chronic kidney disease at the time of ultrasonography. 6 out of 47 cats required a second surgical procedure because of complications following the first operation. 3 out of 47 had postoperative uroabdomen. No preoperative variables examined were significantly associated with survival to discharge.
Bottom line: Ureterolithotomy in cats was associated a 21% mortality rate before discharge.
Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.
Piola, V., Posch, B., Aghte, P., Caine, A. And Herrtage, M. E. (2011) Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 52: 270–272
Radiographic appearance of the os penis in cats
The os penis is well recognised in dogs, but has never before been described radiographically in cats. The authors of this study noted that a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal region of male cats, and they suspected that this may represent the os penis, and that this should be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis. They examined 50 radiographs of the pelvis of cats obtained with analog radiography and 50 radiographs obtained with digital radiography. The os penis was detected in 38% of cats using digital radiography and 16% of cats with analog radiography, which was a statistically significant difference. It was also found that the os penis was more likely to be visible in older cats. In one case that had been radiographed with anolog and digital techniques, the os penis was only visible in the digital images. In another case, the penile tissues were examine histopathologically, and normal well-differentiated bone was found with no evidence of pathology.
Bottom line: The os penis of the cat may be visible on radiographs and should not be mistaken for mineralisation or uroliths.
Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosing small-intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs.
Sharma, A., Thompson, M. S., Scrivani, P. V., Dykes, N. L., Yeager, A. E., Freer, S. R. And Erb, H. N. (2011) Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 52: 248–255.
Radiography versus ultrasonography in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction
This cross-sectional study was performed to compare the accuracy of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction in acutely vomiting dogs.
82 acutely vomiting dogs were enrolled in the study, and obstruction of the small intestine by a foreign body was confirmed in 27 dogs at surgery or post mortem. Radiography gave a definitive result of obstructed or not obstructed in 70% of cases, but 30% did not have signs of small intestinal dilation, 50% of which were due to linear foreign bodies. Ultrasonography produced a definitive result in 97% of cases. Ultrasonographic criteria used to make a diagnosis included detection of an obstructive lesion, signs of plication or segmental small intestinal-dilation. Dilation of the jejunum of > 1.5 cm was found to be a useful discriminatory finding. The authors concluded that ultrasonography had greater accuracy and fewer equivocal results for diagnosis mechanical intestinal obstruction compared to radiography.
Bottom line: The authors found that ultrasonography was superior to radiography for detection of small intestinal obstruction.
Sebaceous adenitis in Havanese dogs: a retrospective study of the clinical presentation and incidence.
Frazer, M. M., Schick, A. E., Lewis, T. P. and Jazic, E. (2011) Veterinary Dermatology, 22: 267–274
Sebaceous adenitis in Havanese dogs
Sebaceous adenitis is thought to be an immune-mediated disease affecting the sebaceous glands. This retrospective study looked at the presentation of the disease and its incidence in Havanese dogs. The authors diagnosed sebaceous adenitis in 35% of Havanese dogs that presented to them over a 5 year period. Clinical signs first occurred in young adulthood, and included follicular casts in 92% of cases, as well as alopecia and hypotrichosis. 67% of cases involved the pinna and/or external ear canal, and the head and trunk were also commonly involved. 42% of cases had secondary pyoderma. Various treatments were given including ciclosporin in 83% of cases, vitamin A and fatty acid supplementation, anti-seborrhoeic shampoos and sprays and oil soaks. Longer duration of treatment was associated with a better clinical response, but flare ups were common.
Bottom line: Sebaceous adenitis is common in Havanese dogs.
Size and geometry of apical sesamoid fracture fragments as a determinant of prognosis in Thoroughbred racehorses.
J. L. KAMM, L. R. BRAMLAGE, L. V. SCHNABEL, A. J. RUGGLES, R. M. EMBERTSON and S. A. HOPPER Equine Veterinary Journal (2011) 43 (4) 412-417
How the size and shape of apical sesamoid fractures affect the prognosis
Fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSB) are the most common fracture of the equine forelimb, and apical fractures are the most common type of PSB fracture. Surgical treatments are generally more successful than conservative treatments. The purpose of this study was to establish if size or geometry of the fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses affect the prognosis, and therefore could be used preoperatively to determine the prognosis. The study included weanlings, yearlings and training racehorses that underwent surgery to remove apical PSB fractures. Radiographs of the fractures were used for measurement of the size and geometry of the fractures, and race records were used to determine average earnings per start and number of post operative starts. Apical fractures in weanlings and yearlings tended to be more transverse in the forelimb medial PSBs than the other PSBs. There was no relationship between fracture size or configuration and earnings or number of starts.
Bottom line: Horses that undergo surgery to remove larger apical fractures of the PSBs do not have a worse outcome than those horses with smaller fractures.
Optimisation of bone marrow aspiration from the equine sternum for the safe recovery of mesenchymal stem cells.
Kasashima, Y., Ueno, T., Tomita, A., Goodship, A.E. and Smith, R.K.W. (2011) Equine Veterinary Journal 43, 288-294.
Optimisation of Bone Marrow Aspiration
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for orthopaedic disease is being used with increasing frequency. The objective of this study was to describe an optimised safe technique for obtaining bone marrow-derived MSCs from the sternum of the Thoroughbred horse. The anatomical relationship of the sternum with the heart and internal anatomy was demonstrated in cadavers. The optimal safe location for the needle was the 5th sternebra because it had a safe dorsoventral thickness and was cranial to the apex of the heart. This sternebra could be reliably identified ultrasonographically. Aspirates could also be obtained from the 4th and 6th sternebrae, although the former is between the front limbs and the latter closer to the heart. Minimal disruption of the internal bony architecture was seen after needle insertion through the thin outer cortex and the first 5 ml aliquot contained the greatest number of colony-forming units of mesenchymal stem cells with trilineage capabilities. It was concluded that accurate placement of a Jamshidi needle into the medullary cavity of the 4th–6th individual sternebrae is facilitated by the use of ultrasonography and enables aspiration of bone marrow reliably with minimal damage to the sternum and risk to the horse.
Bottom line: Using ultrasound guidance, bone marrow aspiration can be safely performed from the 4th-6th sternebrae.