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Previous Issue: Issue 15: October 2012
Surgical management and outcome of lower eyelid entropion in 124 cats
White, J. S., Grundon, R. A., Hardman, C., O’Reilly, A. and Stanley, R. G. (2012), Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15: 231–235
Eyelid entropion can lead to chronic pain and ocular damage, and so often requires surgical management. This retrospective study evaluated the success rate of different surgical techniques for the management of lower eyelid entropion in 124 cats (64 bilateral and 60 unilateral cases). The Holz-Celsus, lateral canthal closure and full thickness wedge resection techniques or a combination of these techniques were used. The overall success rate for a single surgical procedure, which may have involved multiple techniques, was 96% per eye. A second surgery was sufficient to resolve the entropion in the remaining 4%. A combined Holz-Celsus and lateral canthal closure had a 99% success rate. 37% of geriatric cats were found to have presented with corneal sequestra concurrently with their entropion. 17% of cases that had a unilateral procedure and no prophylactic surgery in the other eye went on to develop entropion in that eye as well. The authors concluded that a combined Holz-Celsus and lateral canthal closure was the most effective surgical technique for management of this condition, and recommended prophylactic treatment of the unaffected eye.
Bottom line: The Holz-Celsus and lateral canthal closure methods combined are the best way of treating lower eyelid entropion in cats in this study, and prophylactic treatment of the unaffected eye is recommended.
Gastroenteritis Outbreak Associated With Faecal Shedding of Canine Norovirus in a Portuguese Kennel Following Introduction of Imported Dogs From Russia
Mesquita, J. R. and Nascimento, M. S. J. (2012), Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 59: 456–459
Norovirus is associated with nasty, but rarely life-threatening gastrointestinal disease in humans. This paper describes an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in dogs associated with canine norovirus. The outbreak occurred in a Portuguese kennel after the importation of some dogs from Russia. Canine norovirus was detected in faecal samples of all the dogs with signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. PCR analysis confirmed that all the strains detected were identical. The infection spread throughout the kennel within 2 days. The incubation period was 2 days, and viral shedding lasted less than 7 days. The clinical signs were self-limiting.
Bottom line: Canine norovirus is highly infectious and can cause an acute, self-limiting gastroenteritis in dogs, with the epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks similar to those see in human norovirus outbreaks.
Prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) from skin and carriage sites of dogs after treatment of their meticillin-resistant or meticillin-sensitive staphylococcal pyoderma
Beck, K. M., Waisglass, S. E., Dick, H. L. N. and Weese, J. S. (2012), Veterinary Dermatology, 23: 369–e67
Meticillin-resistant Staphylococci are being increasingly recognised as important pathogens in veterinary cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococci on skin and other carriage sites in dogs with bacterial pyoderma, and to assess the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) colonisation after the pyoderma has been successfully treated. 173 dogs with pyoderma were enrolled into the study, along with 41 healthy controls. Swabs were taken from skin, nose and rectum for bacterial culture at the time of initial referral and after clinical resolution of the pyoderma. MRSP was present in 41% of skin cultures, with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being present in 1.7%. MRSP was also detected in 34% of samples from the nose and rectum. 102 dogs were available for follow up after clinical cure of their pyoderma. Of these, 42 were dogs that had had MRSP previously diagnosed, and 45% of those had MRSP isolated from the skin and 47% from rectum or nose at follow up examinations after cure. In animals which did not have MRSP pyoderma diagnosed at initial examination, MRSP was isolated in 28% of cases post-treatment, and isolation from carriage sites increased from 8% prior to treatment to 27% post cure.
Bottom line: MRSP colonisation often persists after clinical cure of pyoderma, and acquisition of MRSP during treatment appears to occur commonly.
Treatment outcome of dogs with meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pyoderma
Bryan, J., Frank, L. A., Rohrbach, B. W., Burgette, L. J., Cain, C. L. and Bemis, D. A. (2012), Veterinary Dermatology, 23: 361–e65.
Another study dealing with meticillin resistant and meticillin susceptibe Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP) aimed to compare the treatment outcome, adverse effects of medication and concurrent diseases in dogs with pyoderma caused by these two organisms. 123 dogs with MSSP and 93 dogs with MRSP were included in the study. Cefalexin and cefpodoxime were the most commonly prescribed antimicrobials in cases of MSSP, whereas chloramphenicol an doxycycline were most commonly prescribed for MRSP. Adverse effects to treatment were reported in 7 of the MSSP cases and 31 of the MRSP cases, with gastrointestinal side effects being most common. Of the 88 cases of MSSP for which follow up was available, complete resolution of the pyoderma was achieved at the time of the first re-examination. 29 out of 76 MRSP cases achieved complete resolution over the same time course. 3 MSSP and 7 MRSP cases failed to resolve.
Bottom Line: Most pyodermas resolve regardless of meticillin susceptibility, but MRSP pyoderma can take longer to resolve, and treatment is more often associated with side effects.
Implant Removal Rate from Infection after Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy in Dogs
Gallagher, A. D. and Mertens, W. D. (2012), Veterinary Surgery, 41: 705–711
Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for the treatment of cruciate disease can be associated with various complications, including infection of implants. This study aimed to determine the implant removal rate due to infection. 255 dogs, which between them underwent 282 TPLO procedures, were included in this retrospective case series. 7.4% of cases required implant removal because of infection. Various bacterial species were isolated, with 67% being Staphylococcus spp. Gentamicin had the highest susceptibility rate, followed by trimethoprim/sulphonamide and clavulanate/amoxycillin.
Bottom Line: It may be necessary to remove implants following TPLO surgery due to infection. The authors of this study recommend using clavulanate/amoxycillin as an empiric antimicrobial choice while awaiting the outcome of susceptibility testing.
CONTRAST AGENT Gd-EOB-DTPA (EOB•Primovist®) FOR LOW-FIELD MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CANINE FOCAL LIVER LESIONS
Yonetomi, D., Kadosawa, T., Miyoshi, K., Nakao, Y., Homma, E., Hanazono, K., Yamada, E., Nakamura, K., Ijiri, A., Minegishi, N., Maetani, S., Hirayama, K., Taniyama, H. and Nakade, T. (2012), Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 53: 371–380
MRI has a number of veterinary applications, and because of its excellent soft tissue resolution, it is used in human medicine to image the liver. This study evaluated the use of a liver-specific contrast age (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in 14 normal beagles and 9 dogs with focal liver lesions, when using low field MRI to image the liver. Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulates in normal hepatocytes 20 minutes after injection. The authors developed a protocol for a dynamic multiphasic examination of the liver, including arterial and portal venous phases. The optimal time to observe hepatobiliary changes was 20 minutes after injection. 11 lesions were diagnosed as malignant in the dogs with liver disease. They were found to be hypointense to the normal surrounding liver parenchyma during the hepatobiliary phase.
Bottom Line: Even with a low-field MRI, it is possible to image the liver parenchyma and detect tumours. Contrast-enhanced MRI using a liver-specific contrast agent provided good demarcation of focal canine liver lesions.
Preliminary evidence for biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in solid tumours
London, C., Mathie, T., Stingle, N., Clifford, C., Haney, S., Klein, M. K., Beaver, L., Vickery, K., Vail, D. M., Hershey, B., Ettinger, S., Vaughan, A., Alvarez, F., Hillman, L., Kiselow, M., Thamm, D., Higginbotham, M. L., Gauthier, M., Krick, E., Phillips, B., LaDue, T., Jones, P., Bryan, J., Gill, V., Novasad, A., Fulton, L., Carreras, J., McNeill, C., Henry, C. and Gillings, S. (2012), Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 10: 194–205.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are attracting a lot attention as treatment for a variety of neoplasms. This study aimed to provide an initial assessment of the activity of toceranib phosphate in certain solid tumours of dogs, including apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA), metastatic osteosarcoma (OSA), thryoid carcinoma and other carcinomas. 74% of dogs showed a clinical benefit, including 28 out of 32 AGASACA (8 of which showed a partial response and 20 demonstrated stable disease).
Bottom Line: This drug may be of benefit in a variety of solid tumours, but further prospective controlled studies are required to define the drug’s true activity.
In vitro effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, masitinib mesylate, on canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines
Lyles, S. E., Milner, R. J., Kow, K. and Salute, M. E. (2012), Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 10: 223–235
Masitinib mesylate is another tyrosine kinase inhibitor which may be of benefit in a variety of tumours. This in vitro study examined the use of this drug against canine haemangiosarcoma (HSA) cell lines after treatment with increasing concentrations. A dose and time dependent decrease in HSA cell proliferation was observed, with apoptopsis being induced in all HSA cell lines.
Bottom Line: Masitinib causes dose-dependent cell death in HSA in vitro, and so clinical trials of masitinib for the treatment of HSA are warranted.
Return to use and performance following exploratory celiotomy for colic in horses: 195 cases (2003-2010)
W. Davis, C.A Fogle, M.P. Gerard, J.F. Levine and A.T Blikslager Equine Veterinary Journal
This study investigated the proportion of horses returning to their intended use and level of performance following exploratory celiotomy. Only those horses who survived for greater than six months post operatively were included. Of 195 cases 68% were performing their intended use and 54% were performing at or above the preoperative level of performance. Intended use was defined as athletic in 156 cases with a range of disciplines represented. Factors associated with a decreased likelihood of return to use were incisional herniation, laminitis, diarrhoea, history of previous celiotomy and those with a strangulating lesion. Horses which had had a period of rest due to an orthopaedic condition prior to surgery were less likely to return to the expected level of performance. Post-operative owner satisfaction regarding return to use and performance was rated as excellent in 78% of cases. This study is of interest to practitioners as it may guide owners in decision making prior to embarking on exploratory celiotomy for colic.
Bottom Line: In this hospital populations, of horses which survived for more than 6 months following exploratory celiotomy for colic, 68% performed their intended use, with 54% performing at or above preoperative performance.
Aortic rupture and aorto-pulmonary fistulation in the Friesian horse: Characterisation of the clinical and gross post mortem findings in 24 cases
M.Ploeg, V.Saey, C.M.de Bruijn, A.Gröne, K.Chiers, G.van Loon, R.Ducatelle, P.R. van Weeren, W.Back and C.Delesalle Equine Veterinary Journal
Aortic rupture is a well recognised cause of sudden death in horses, however a more unusual form of aortic rupture has been documented, particularly in Friesian horses. In these cases the aortic rupture occurs at a more distal location, at the level of the aortic arch and is commonly associated with aorto-pulmonary fistulation. The aim of this study was to describe these cases therefore providing characteristic phenotypic and post mortem findings to assist in future diagnosis. 24 cases were included; the history, clinical examination, haematological parameters, findings of diagnostic imaging and post mortem findings were analysed. Interestingly many horses showed clinical signs for a number of days prior to death- only 3 cases presented as sudden death. Typical clinical signs included recurrent colic, anorexia, depression, poor performance and coughing. On examination some horses were pyrexic, tachycardic or had a hyperkinetic pulse. 11 of the 26 cases had a murmur detected upon physical examination. 16 cases had an echocardiographic examination of which 5 had a dilated pulmonary artery. In most cases the diagnosis of aortic rupture of the aortic arch near the ligamentum arteriosum with concurrent aorto-pulmonary fistulation was made at most mortem. A circumferential cuff of blood around the aorta covering the aortic rupture was present in 8 cases. The authors demonstrated that an ante-mortem diagnosis of this condition is challenging. They suggest modifying the standard heart opening technique during a post mortem examination to ensure that this condition is not missed.
Bottom Line: Aortic rupture in conjunction with aorto-pulmonary fistulation at the level of the artic arch is more common in Friesian horses than previously thought. Presenting signs range from sudden death to cardiac failure, developing over several weeks. The post mortem approach to the heart should be modified to ensure this condition is not missed.