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Previous Issue: Issue 19: October 2013
Effect of Ovariohysterectomy at the Time of Tumor Removal in Dogs with Benign Mammary Tumors and Hyperplastic Lesions: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Kristiansen, V.M., Nødtvedt, A., Breen, A.M., Langeland, M., Teige, J., Goldschmidt, M., Jonasdottir, T.J., Grotmol, T. and Sørenmo, K. (2013) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 935–942
Ovariohysterectomy (OHE) is often recommended in bitches that have had mammary tumours removed, but little is know about the effect of OHE on the subsequent development of benign tumours. This randomised controlled clinical trial investigated 84 entire bitches with non malignant mammary tumours. They were randomised to undergo OHE at the time of tumour removal. Tumours were diagnosed histologically in all cases, and the animals were all followed up with phone calls or re-examinations. New mammary tumours developed in 64% of intact dogs and 36% of dogs that underwent OHE. 21% of the dogs which developed new mammary tumours were euthanased because of the tumour. However, there was not a significant difference in survival between the groups. Nine dogs that did not undergo OHE subsequently developed a disease of the ovaries or uterus.
Bottom line: Ovariohysterectomy should be considered at the time of mammary tumour excision to reduce the risk of new tumours, but this doesn’t appear to affect survival.
A Comparison of Hepatic Sonographic Features and Histopathologic Diagnosis in Canine Liver Disease: 138 Cases
Kemp, S.D., Panciera, D.L., Larson, M.M., Saunders, G.K. and Werre, S.R. (2013) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 806–813
The liver can be affected by a variety of diseases, and ultrasound is a quick and non-invasive way of assessing the liver. This study examined the relationship between ultrasound features of liver disease and the histopathological diagnosis. 138 dogs were included in the retrospective study, 25 of which were normal, and the rest had diagnoses of degenerative, vascular, inflammatory, neoplastic and nodular regenerative diseases. 64% of livers which were normal on ultrasound had abnormalities found on histological examination. The finding of hepatic masses was associated with a diagnosis of neoplasia, and the findings of microhepatica and abnormal vessels was associated with a diagnosis of vascular disease. A histological diagnosis of hepatitis was associated with findings of a dilated common bile duct and a thickened gall bladder wall. However, there were no ultrasound findings that were consistently present with hepatic fibrosis.
Bottom line: Although ultrasonography of the liver is useful in the diagnosis of certain disorders, there are marked limitations in using ultrasonography to predict histological disease.
An Observational Study with Long-Term Follow-Up of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction: Clinical Characteristics, Survival, and Risk Factors
Fast, R., Schütt, T., Toft, N., Møller, A. and Berendt, M. (2013) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 822–829.
The condition of canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) has many characteristics in common with the neurodegenerative condition Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in humans, such as cortical atrophy and amyloid-beta deposits. 94 dogs over the age of 8 were included in this study and examined by use of a questionnaire, by which they were allocated to CCD, non-CCD and borderline CCD groups. They were followed up three years later with an observational study. The most common clinical signs associated with CCD were disruption in sleep patterns, decreased interaction, anxiety and disorientation. Many of the borderline cases developed full blown CCD. However, CCD was not a negative prognostic indicator regarding survival. The authors concluded that a few key questions, particularly in the areas of sleeping, interaction, confusion and anxiety, can be helpful in making a clinical diagnosis of CCD.
Bottom line: Canine cognitive dysfunction can be diagnosed with a few key questions. If given appropriate care, dogs with CCD can live a normal lifespan.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BRONCHIECTASIS IN 12 DOGS
Cannon, M. S., Johnson, L. R., Pesavento, P. A., Kass, P. H. and Wisner, E. R. (2013) Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 54: 351–357
Bronchiectasis is a condition of the bronchi involving irreversible dilation due to chronic airway disease. Diagnosis can be made using radiography and bronchoscopy. This retrospective study investigated the use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of this condition. To be included in the study, a case had to have thoracic radiography bronchoscopy and thoracic CT. Twelve dogs met these criteria. CT bronchoarterial ratios were measured at various locations. The mean bronchoarterial ratio in lung lobes which had bronchiectasis was 2.7, but around 17% of the measurements were less than 2.0 (the previously described normal value). Other CT characteristics included lack of tapering of the peripheral airways, lung lobe consolidation and bronchial wall thickening. In some cases, thoracic radiography did not demonstrate the lack of peripheral airway tapering.
Bottom line: Computed tomography appears to be a useful method of diagnosing bronchiectasis, but some cases have smaller bronchoarterial ratios than previously reported.
Candida peritonitis in dogs: report of 5 cases
Bradford, K., Meinkoth, J., McKeirnen, K. and Love, B. (2013) Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 42: 227–233
Peritonitis is a potentially fatal condition often caused by bacterial infection of the peritoneal space. This study reports five cases of peritonitis caused by the opportunist yeast Candida species. Predisposing factors to Candida peritonitis include abdominal surgery, gut perforation, gut inflammation, antibiotic administration and immunosuppression. The five cases in this study had peritonitis subsequent to conditions/interventions including perforated ulcer following NSAID treatment, intestinal surgery and cholecystectomy. Cytology of ascitic fluid demonstrated pyogranulomatous inflammation and yeast organisms.
Bottom line: Candida perintonitis should be considered in cases where contamination of the peritoneal cavity with contents of the gastro-intestinal tract or biliary tree has occurred.
The effect of topical latanoprost on anterior segment anatomic relationships in normal dogs
Tsai, S., Almazan, A., Lee, S. S., Li, H., Conforti, P., Burke, J., Miller, P. E. and Robinson, M. R. (2013) Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16: 370–376
Topical latanoprost is used as treatment for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in dogs, but has been reported to cause miosis. This study investigated the use of the drug in 35 normal female beagles. The dogs were assessed using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and after scanning, one drop of latanoprost 0.005% was applied. The scan was repeated 30 minutes later. Marked miosis was found to result, with a shallowing of the anterior chamber and anterior bowing of the iris. The iridocorneal angle was also narrowed. The authors concluded that latanoprost may be of limited use as a prophylactic treatment for PACG.
Bottom line: Latanoprost administration into the eyes of healthy Beagles was found to lead to significant ocular changes.
Pneumomediastinum in cats: 45 cases (2000–2010)
Thomas, E. K. and Syring, R. S. (2013) Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 23: 429–435
Pneumomediastinum is an uncommonly encountered condition with a variety of possible causes. This retrospective study identified 45 cases presenting to a university teaching hospital in an 11 year period. In 69% of cases, an inciting cause was identified, with endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation being most common (38% of cases). Trauma accounted for 27% of cases and tracheal foreign bodies in 4% of cases. The cause was unknown in 31% of cases. In 6 out of 14 cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, vomiting preceded the the onset of clinical signs. Common signs included tachypnoea, increased respiratory effort and subcutaneous emphysema. 47% of cats had concurrent pneumothorax, 22% concurrent pleural effusion, and 47% concurrent pneumoretroperitoneum. Supportive care led to a good prognosis, with 87% of cases surviving to discharge.
Bottom line: Pneumomediastinum is an uncommon condition, often associated with an obvious inciting cause such as intubation/ventilation, but it may also occur spontaneously.
Assessment of circulating N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentration to differentiate between cardiac from noncardiac causes of pleural effusion in cats
Hassdenteufel, E., Henrich, E., Hildebrandt, N., Stosic, A. and Schneider, M. (2013) Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 23: 416–422
Pleural effusions are common findings in cats, with a variety of causes, including cardiac disease, neoplasia and infection. This prospective observational study aimed to determine the use of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in differentiating congestive heart failure (CHF) from non-cardiogenic causes of pleural effusion. Twenty one cats with moderate to severe pleural effusion were included in the study. Eleven cats were deemed to have CHF on the basis of echocardiography, while ten cases were considered to not have CHF. NT-proBNP was significantly higher in the CHF group than the non-CHF group (median 982pmol/l in the CHF group compared to 69 in the non-CHF group). The optimum cut off value was 258 pmol/l.
Bottom line: Although this was only a small sample size, NT-proBNP was a useful test for differentiating congestive heart failure from other causes of pleural effusion in cats.
Measurement of cortisol in dog hair: a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of hypercortisolism
Ouschan, C., Kuchar, A. and Möstl, E. (2013) Veterinary Dermatology, 24: 428–e94.
The diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism is challenging because of the wide spectrum of clinical signs and the lack of a single test with both good specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol levels in the serum can change rapidly, so a test for the levels of cortisol over a longer time period would be useful. This study assessed the measurement of cortisol in dog hair as a non-invasive method of diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. Hair samples from twelve dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and ten healthy dogs were included in the study. Levels of immunoreactive cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone were all found to be significantly higher in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism than in control dogs, with the most pronounced difference being found in cortisol measurements.
Bottom line: Measurement of cortisol in hair may be a useful and non-invasive method of diagnosing hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.
Development of a real time PCR to detect Streptococcus equi subspecies equi.
SE North, PR Wakeley, N Mayo, J Mayers and J Sawyer Equine Veterinary Journal
Streptococcus equi subspecies equi can be difficult to detect by culture in long-term carriers due to overgrowth of contaminants and low sensitivity.
This study describes the development and validation of a PCR assay and compares it to standard culture techniques. Development of a PCR assay was complicated by the high level of homology with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus and S. pyogenes. A gene which is unique to S.equi subspecies equi was identified during recent work, hence allowing this study to be undertaken. The PCR was initially performed on 48 samples from bacterial archives, which had previously identified as S.equi using culture and biochemical techniques. Thereafter the technique was validated using 92 samples from suspected cases which underwent both culture and real time PCR.
The diagnostic sensitivity of real time PCR was found to be 95% and the specificity 86%. As PCR only detects DNA, it does not infer the presence of live, infectious bacteria therefore it must be interpreted with this in mind, this does however allow the sensitivity to be improved for the detection of bacteria in intermittent shedders.
Bottom line: The bottom line: Real time PCR is a rapid technique for detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi which shows increased sensitivity compared to culture alone.
A long-term study on the clinical effects of mechanical widening of cheek teeth diastemata for treatment of periodontitis in 202 horses (2008-2011)
PM Dixon, S Ceen, T Barnett, JM O¹Leary, T Parkin and S Barakzai Equine Veterinary Journal
Diastemata of cheek teeth in horses are associated with periodontal disease and are believed to be a significant source of pain. The effectiveness of mechanical widening of the diastemata was determined in terms of clinical signs before and after treatment in this retrospective study. 302 horses were diagnosed with diastema, of which 202 cases were treated with mechanical widening. Follow up information was available for 92% cases with a mean follow up duration of 20.8months. In 50.5% of cases there was a permanent remission of clinical signs for the duration of follow up. In 22% cases there was a temporary improvement. In the remaining cases there was a partial response or no response to treatment. There was no difference in success rate with varying locations of diastema. In 6 horses an unintentional site on a caudal mandibular tooth was burred due to head or tongue movement, this resulted in pulpar exposure in two horses but they did not go on to develop apical infection.
Bottom line: The bottom line: Mechanical widening of diastemata is an invasive technique with a high success rate, although some cases require repeated treatments.