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Previous Issue: Issue 2
Elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease is associated with a negative outcome
A. KATHRANI, J. M. STEINER, J. SUCHODOLSKI, J. EASTWOOD, H. SYME, O. A. GARDEN, K. ALLENSPACH (2009) Journal of Small Animal Practice 50 (3), 126–132.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans is often complicated by a clinically silent chronic pancreatitis, which may affect long term outcome. This study looked at whether a similar problem exists in dogs. Forty-seven dogs with histologically confirmed IBD had stored serum samples tested for canine pancreatic lipase (cPLI) levels. This test is reported to have a sensitivity of 82% for pancreatitis. Fifteen of the dogs had elevated cPLI levels, suggestive of IBD associated pancreatitis. The dogs with elevated cPLI were less likely to be responsive to steroids, and were more likely to be euthanased at follow up. The authors believe cPLI should be assessed in cases of IBD, as the results of this test may affect the management and prognosis of the condition.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Eosinophilia in Dogs
R.C. WINDSOR, B.K. STURGES, K.M. VERNAU, AND W. VERNAU (2009) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 23 (2), 275–281.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology is an essential part of many neurological work ups, and in particular when looking for inflammatory disease. The authors of this retrospective study describe 23 cases of dogs with an eosinophilic CSF, defined as the presence of >3 nucleated cells/uL, of which at least 20% were eosinophils. Infectious organisms were noted in four of these dogs – Cryptococcus, Neospora and Baylisascaris. (It should be noted these dogs were resident in the USA, and different geographical regions have different endemic infectious organisms). Sixteen dogs had idiopathic eosinophilic meningitis. Of these dogs, 7/13 which had MRI scans performed demonstrated visible abnormalities (including focal and multifocal hyperintensities) and 12/16 of the dogs with idiopathic eosinophilic meningitis recovered with steroid therapy. The infectious causes were associated with a poor prognosis.
R. GOGGS, L. BENIGNI, V. L. FUENTES, D. L. CHAN (2009) Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 19 (1), 30–52.
Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) refers to the obstruction of one or more pulmonary vessels by a thrombus. This study reviews the veterinary literature on this life threatening but underdiagnosed disease. In humans, computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis, but echocardiography is also used. Selective pulmonary angiography is currently the veterinary technique of choice, but CT may supersede this. Thromboelastography is a technique that can be used to identify hypercoagulable patients that are at risk from thrombosis. Diseases that may predispose to a hypercoagulable state are discussed, and include increased levels of endogenous or exogenous steroids, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, sepsis and trauma. Thrombolytic treatment is controversial, as there are no prospective clinical trials on such drugs as t-PA and streptokinase. The authors conclude this is a challenging disease to diagnose, but because of a high mortality rate, early identification of at-risk patients is important.
A prospective, randomized comparison of Oxyglobin (HB-200) and packed red blood cell transfusion for canine babesiosis
A. B. ZAMBELLI, A. L. LEISEWITZ (2009) Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 19 (1), 102–112.
Babesiosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in some countries, causing severe anaemia. Blood transfusions have been an important part of the supportive treatment of this condition. This prospective study from South Africa looked at the use of Oxyglobin compared to packed red cells for supportive treatment. Oxyglobin has some theoretical benefits over blood transfusions, e.g. reduced risk of disease transmission, reduced risk of transfusion reaction and ease of sourcing the product. In this study, dogs treated with Oxyglobin had similar improvements compared to packed red cell transfusions, with respect to blood gas, acid-base and blood pressure, although animals treated with packed red cells tended to have a quicker return to appetite and normal demeanour.
Safety and efficacy of mid-term pregnancy termination using aglepristone in dogs
C. H. PETTERSSON AND A. TIDHOLM (2009) Journal of Small Animal Practice 50 (3), 120–123.
Various drugs and treatments have been used to induce abortion in dogs. This study investigated the efficacy and side effects of the progesterone antagonist aglepristone in dogs with a mid-term pregnancy. Eighty-two bitches were scanned for pregnancy between days 23 and 42 following suspected mismating. Twenty-eight dogs were pregnant (including, interestingly, only 19 out of 37 dogs in which the mating was actually observed). Twenty-two dogs were treated with aglepristone. Twenty-one dogs had the pregnancy successfully terminated, with signs of abortion occurring 1-8 days following administration. Side effects were few and transient.
Psychological well-being of Australian veterinarians
L. FRITSCHI, D. MORRISON, A. SHIRANGI, L. DAY (2009) Australian Veterinary Journal 87 (3), 76–81.
Psychological disturbances are thought to be common in the veterinary profession, with predisposing factors including: dealing with difficult or upset owners, dealing with euthanasia, and managing their own business. This study used established psychological scales to measure the levels of stress, anxiety and depression in Australian veterinary surgeons. A third of respondents to the survey reported poor mental well-being. Older vets, vets who had been in their current job for longer periods, and males were less likely to report problems. The authors note that poor psychological well-being is common in the veterinary profession, and suggest that the professional veterinary bodies should consider providing specific training on dealing with work-related distress, anxiety and depression
Radiographic definition of the anticlinal vertebra in the dog
E. A. BAINES, J. GRANDAGE, M. E. HERRTAGE, S. J. BAINES (2009) Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 50 (1), 69–73
The anticlinal vertebra is an important anatomical landmark, which can be used to identify T11 where other parts of the spinal column are not visible on imaging. However, the criteria used to define the anticlinal vertebra differ between texts. Some texts suggest that the perpendicularity of the spinal process is the defining feature; others suggest it is the verticality, and further texts suggest it is the orientation of the intervertebral joints that is important. This study examined the three definitions and assessed specificity and sensitivity for these criteria identifying T11 accurately. However, even the best definition only correctly identified T11 in 89% of cases. Combining definitions allowed some improvement, but the authors cautioned that clinicians should be aware that the anticlinal vertebra is not T11 in all dogs.
Comparative study on the sedative effects of morphine, methadone, butorphanol or tramadol, in combination with acepromazine, in dogs
E. R. MONTEIRO, A. R. JUNIOR, H. M. ASSIS, D. CAMPAGNOL, J. G. QUITZAN (2009) Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 36 (1), 25–33.
This study compared the effects of acepromazine in combination with butorphanol, tramadol, methadone and morphine, with respect to levels of sedation achieved, cardiorespiratory variables, body temperature and emesis. Acepromazine alone decreased body temperature and systolic arterial blood pressure, and produced mild sedation. Adding opiates further decreased body temperature. Retching and vomiting was common when morphine was added. Methadone provided the best sedation.
Genetic analysis of ventricular arrhythmia in young German shepherd dogs
J. CRUICKSHANK, R.L. QUAAS, J. LI, S. HEMSLEY, T.M. GUNN, N.S. MOÏSE (2009) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 23 (2), 264–270.
Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death are known to be inherited in young German shepherd dogs (GSDs). This prospective case control study aimed to estimate the heritability of the condition. Holter records from nearly 400 GSDs were obtained. A strong genetic component for the disease was identified, but there appeared to be differences in heritability and age of onset for dogs that had single ventricular premature complexes, couplets or ventricular tachycardia.