Tibial tuberosity advancement in 92 canine stifles: initial results, clinical outcome and owner evaluation Incidence of elevation of cardiac troponin I prior to and following routine general anaesthesia in dogs Canine paediatric oncology: retrospective assessment of 9522 tumours in dogs up to 12 months (1993–2008) Estimated frequency of the canine hyperuricosuria mutation in different dog breeds The relationship between body weight, body condition and survival in cats with heart failure Clinical magnetic resonance volumetry of the hippocampus in 58 epileptic dogs The effect of a technical quality assessment of hip-extended radiographs on interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. Clinical significance of osseous spurs on the dorsoproximal aspect of the third metatarsal bone Colic in geriatric compared to mature nongeriatric horses. Part 1: Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data Colic in geriatric compared to mature nongeriatric horses. Part 2: Treatment, diagnosis and short-term survival
Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is a technique developed for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in a dogs. This study involved a retrospective examination of hospital records for dogs which had had TTA performed for partial or complete CCL rupture. 92 stifles in 72 dogs had TTA performed. Labrador Retrievers and Rottweilers were the most common breeds. Duration of lameness ranged from 3 days to 24 months. 29% of cases suffered minor complications and 6.5% had major complications, including meniscal injury and tibial tuberosity fracture. These complications were successfully managed. 96% of owners reported moderate to great improvement following surgery. The authors conclude that this case series suggests that favourable results can be expected when TTA is used to treat CCL injury.
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a marker of cardiac damage, and this study aimed to estimate the incidence of elevations in this marker after general anaesthesia. 107 dogs had blood samples taken within 24 hours prior to induction of anaesthesia, and then 24 hours after the termination of anaesthesia. The median pre-anaesthetic cTnI was <0.2ng/ml and the median increase from pre-anaesthetic levels was 0. Fourteen dogs had increases in cTnI, and six had decreases. Dogs aged 8 and over were 3.6 times as likely to have an increased cTnI after anaesthesia.
Neoplasia in juvenile dogs is uncommon, and so there is little information in the literature on this subject. This study was a retrospective review of the histopathological diagnoses of neoplasia in dogs less than 12 months, diagnosed in a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory in the UK between 1993 and 2008. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma comprised 89%. 4% of neoplasms were classed as benign epithelial, 2% haemopoietic, 2% benign mesenchymal, 1% non-haematopoietic malignant mesenchymal, 1% malignant epithelial and 1% miscellaneous. Of the non-histiocytoma tumours, 52% were benign, and 66% arose from the skin or soft tissues.
Hyperuricosuria is a condition that predisposes dogs to develop urate urolothiasis. A genetic mutation has been identified in three unrelated dog breeds that causes this condition. This study aimed to identify other breeds that had the same mutation. 3530 dogs from 127 different breeds underwent DNA testing to estimate the frequency of the mutant allele. The mutant allele was identified in a number of breeds including the German Shepherd Dog, Labrador Retriever, Weimeraner and Pomeranian. The frequencies varied between breeds. The authors note that a DNA test is available for this condition which might help breeders to decrease the frequency of the mutant allele in the gene pool, as well as being a useful diagnostic test for vets.
In human cardiology, it has been noted that obese people with heart failure have an improved survival compared with normal or underweight people. This study investigated whether a similar relationship between body weight and survival occurs in cats with heart failure. 101 cats with heart failure were evaluated, and data on initial body weight, body condition score, changes in body weight, treatment and survival times were collected. The median survival time for all cats was 93 days, with a range of 0-811 days. Cats with the lowest and highest body weights had reduced survival times compared with body weight in the intermediate ranges, which the authors describe as a U-shaped relationship between body weight and survival. The optimal management of cats with heart failure with respect to body composition needs further investigation.
The hippocampal region of the brain is known to be commonly atrophied in intractable epilepsy in humans, but this is less certain in canine epilepsy. This study examined the hippocampal volume of 58 epileptic dogs, and compared them with 35 control dogs using MRI. The relative hippocampal volume asymmetry of the right and left hippocampi was also calculated. 12% of the epileptic dogs had visible hippocampal lesions. The hippocampal volume asymmetric ratio was found to be significantly greater in epileptic dogs than in the controls. 48% of the dogs were characterised as having unilateral hippocampal atrophy. This technique cannot be used to detect bilateral atrophy however. The authors conclude that hippocampal atrophy may occur in canine epilepsy, but is less frequent than in human epilepsy patients.
Radiographic scoring of hip status is used in many countries in an attempt to decrease the incidence of hip dysplasia in various breeds. However, the technical quality of radiographs may affect the scores given. In this study, 50 hip radiographs of 25 dogs were assessed by experienced and inexperienced observers, and scored according to the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) criteria. A separate assessment of radiographic technical quality was made. Interobserver agreement in FCI scoring and in determining whether the hips were dysplastic did not significantly increase with increasing radiograph quality, whether the observers were experienced or not. There was however, a significant agreement between technical quality and assessability. Interobserver agreement assessment of the hips was low, even with high quality radiographs and experienced observers. Increasing radiographic quality narrowed the range of scoring, but the authors concluded that the range still remained unacceptably high.
Osseous spurs on the dorsoproximal aspect of the third metatarsal bone (MtIII) are common, but their clinical significance is unknown. The objectives of this study were to verify the sites of insertion of the dorsal metatarsal ligament and the tendons of tibialis cranialis and fibularis tertius in order to determine if periarticular osteophytes and entheseophytes could be differentiated radiologically; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of osseous spurs on the dorsoproximal aspect of MtIII.
It is the impression of some surgeons that geriatric horses have a lower survival rate compared to mature nongeriatric horses following colic surgery. One possible reason for this is that geriatric horses may be more critically ill at admission and have more severe disease than mature nongeriatric horses.
Owners and veterinarians are often concerned about mortality of geriatric horses following colic surgery. This study was performed to compare treatment, diagnosis and short-term survival for geriatric compared to mature nongeriatric horses with colic. Medical records of horses admitted with a presenting complaint of colic between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed. Geriatric horses were aged _16 years (n = 300) and subcategorised as age _20 years (n = 134). Mature nongeriatric horses were age 4–15 years (n = 300). Information obtained included medical (included horses subjected to euthanasia without surgery) vs. Surgical management, lesion location, type and classification, surgical procedures performed and short-term survival. Data were analysed using a Chi-squared test or an analysis of variance. Level of significance was P<0.05.