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Previous Issue: Issue 9
Display Quality Of Different Monitors In Feline Digital Radiography
Ludewig, E., Boeltzig, C., Gäbler, K., Werrmann, A. & Oechtering, G. (2011) Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 52: 1–9
Digital radiography is becoming more widespread in general practice, with its advantages including lower operating costs, and faster acquisition of images. Attention is usually paid to the quality of the digital set up itself, but this paper looked at the effect of monitor performance on quality of image. Two medical-grade gray scale monitors, one CRT and one LCD, and two consumer-grade colour monitors, again one CRT and one LCD, were compared to assess their ability to display anatomic structures in cats. Radiographs of the stifle and thorax were acquired from 30 domestic short haired cats, and evaluated. The two medical grade monitors had superior display quality compared to the standard monitors. No differences were found between the two medical grade monochrome monitors. The colour LCD screen was rated significantly worse than the colour CRT screen. The authors suggest that there is a need for guidelines defining the minimum requirements for quality of monitors.
Comparison of anal sac cytological findings and behaviour in clinically normal dogs and those affected with anal sac disease
James, D. J., Griffin, C. E., Polissar, N. L. and Neradilek, M. B. (2011) Veterinary Dermatology, 22: 80–87
Anal sac disease is a common cause of clincal signs such as dyschezia and perianal pruritus. This study aimed to assess the utility of cytology in anal sac disease. Thirty dogs were selected for the study based on a behavioural questionnaire related to the behaviours typical of anal sac disease. Ten were considered normal on the basis of this questionnaire. Anal sacs were manually expressed and the discharge examined microscopically. Scooting was noted to occur a median of 3 weeks after expression of the anal sacs. There were no significant cytological differences noted between normal dogs and those with anal sac disease, and the authors concluded that cytology is not effective for diagnosing this condition.
Topical KINOSTAT™ ameliorates the clinical development and progression of cataracts in dogs with diabetes mellitus
Kador, P. F., Webb, T. R., Bras, D., Ketring, K. and Wyman, M. (2010) Veterinary Ophthalmology, 13: 363–368
Cataract development is a recognised and frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs. This study, a randomised, prospective, double blind placebo controlled pilot, aimed to evaluate the ability of the aldose reductase inhibitor Kinostat in ameliorating the onset of progression of cataracts in dogs with DM. 40 dogs with newly diagnosed DM and no or minimal lens changes were enrolled, with 28 receiving Kinostat and 12 receiving placebo. After 12 months of treatment, the cataract score in the placebo group increased significantly, with 7 dogs developing mature cataracts. By contrast the cataract scores of the Kinostat group did not differ significantly from baseline. The authors concluded that the onset and/or progression of cataracts in dogs with DM can be significantly delayed by topical administration of Kinostat.
A Prospective Study of Clopidogrel Therapy in Dogs with Primary Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia
Mellet, A. M., Nakamura, R. K., & Bianco, D. (2011) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 25:71-75
Primary immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (pIMHA) carries a guarded prognosis and a high mortality rate, one reason for which is its association with thrombotic disease. Ultra-low dose aspirin is commonly used in these cases to prevent thrombosis, but the efficacy of anti-platelet drugs in dogs with pIMHA isn’t known. This study assessed the use of the anti-platelet drug clopidogrel in cases of pIMHA. 24 client-owned dogs with pIMHA were enrolled in a prospective, positive-controlled, unmasked clinical trial, with dogs randomised to receive ultra-low dose aspirin, clopidogrel or both. No adverse reactions or evidence of haemorrhage were noted with the clopidogrel, either alone or in combination with aspirin, compared to aspirin alone. No significant difference was found between the treatment groups with respect to survival to discharge, or survival to 90 days. The authors noted that clopidogrel appeared to be safe, and similarly efficacious to ultra-low dose aspirin in the treatment of pIMHA.
Detection of Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs by Doppler Echocardiography
Schober, K., Hart, T., Stern, J., Li, X., Samii, V., Zekas, L., Scansen, B. and Bonagura, J. (2010) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24: 1358–1368
Echocardiography is a vital tool in the diagnosis of heart disease, but most of the commonly measured parameters do not help to differentiate dogs in congestive heart failure (CHF) from those that are not. This study hypothesised that measuring Doppler echocardiographic variables of left ventricular filling in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) would allow prediction of congestive heart failure. 63 client-owned dogs were enrolled into a prospective clinical cohort study. Each dog was investigated with physical examination, thoracic radiography, blood tests for natriuretic peptides and echocardiography. The diagnosis of CHF was based upon the clinical and radiographic findings. The authors found that the presence of CHF in these cases could best be predicted by E:isovolumic relaxation time, the respiration rate, the diastolic function class, or a combination of these. Other variables including NT-pro BNP, and E:Ae and E:Vp measurements were less useful. The authors conclude that Doppler echocardiographic variables can be used to predict CHF in dogs with MVD and DCM. The clinical benefit of this requires further study.
Surgical Technique, Postoperative Complications and Outcome in 14 Dogs Treated for Hydrocephalus by Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting
de Stefani, A., de Risio, L., Platt, S. R., Matiasek, L., Lujan-Feliu-Pascual, A. and Garosi, L. S. (2011) Veterinary Surgery, 40: 183–191
Obstructive hydrocephalus is a congenital or acquired condition caused by obstruction of the outflow of CSF from the ventricular system of the brain, potentially leading to severe neurological signs. Severe cases, especially ones refractory to medical treatment, can be treated surgically by ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting. This case series documents the outcome of this procedure in 14 dogs. For inclusion, the dogs had to have demonstrated progressive forebrain signs unresponsive to medical treatment, with negative antibody titres and/or CSF PCR for Toxoplasma, Neospora and canine distemper virus, plus MRI of the brain confirming the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. In 5 dogs the hydrocephalus was idiopathic, and in 9 dogs it was secondary to such conditions as inflammatory disease and interventricular tumours. 4 dogs developed complications, at between 1 week and 18 months post-operatively, including ventricular catheter migration, infection, under-drainage, valve fracture and abdominal skin necrosis. Complications were resolved medically or by revision surgery. All but 1 dog was discharged within a week of surgery, with substantial neurological improvement. Median survival time was 274 days for dogs with idiopathic hydrocephalus, and 365 days for dogs with secondary hydrocephalus.
Effects of 6% hetastarch (600/0.75) or lactated Ringer’s solution on hemostatic variables and clinical bleeding in healthy dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery
Chohan, A. S., Greene, S. A., Grubb, T. L., Keegan, R. D., Wills, T. B. and Martinez, S. A. (2011) Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 38: 94–105
Colloids have been recommended for treatment of certain disorders involving volume depletion, with hetastarch being a frequently recommended product. This study aimed to evaluate haemostatic variables following administration of hetastarch. In a retrospective blinded prospective study, 14 healthy adult dogs which were undergoing orthopaedic surgery were randomised to receive either a bolus of hetastarch, or a bolus of lactated Ringer’s solution (LRS). Both groups had a maintenance infusion of LRS during anaesthesia. Prothrombin time was significantly higher in both groups after infusion compared to baseline, and PCV and total protein fell in both groups. Platelet counts also fell in both groups and buccal mucosal bleeding times increased in both groups. Neither Von Willebrand’s Factor levels nor Factor VIII coagulant activity changed significantly. The authors concluded that both LRS and hetastarch could affect some haemostatic parameters, but no clinical bleeding problems during surgery were noted.
Correlation of resting and exercising endoscopic findings for horses with dynamic laryngeal collapse and palatal dysfunction
Barakzai, S.Z. and Dixon, P.M. (2011) Equine Veterinary Journal. 43, 18-23
This study was performed to correlate resting and exercising endoscopic grades of laryngeal function in horses undergoing high-speed treadmill endoscopy (HSTE)
using the Havemeyer grading system and also to correlate dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) seen at rest with palatal function during exercise.
Records of 281 horses that underwent HSTE examination (1999–2009) were reviewed. Resting laryngeal function score and other abnormalities noted on resting endoscopy were recorded as were results of HSTE. Results of resting and exercising endoscopic findings were correlated. There was significant correlation between grade of laryngeal function at rest (grades 1–4) and exercise (r = 0.53, P<0.001) and between resting subgrades 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 and exercising grades of laryngeal function (r = 0.43, P = 0.0017). DDSP was observed at rest significantly more often in horses that developed DDSP during HSTE than those without DDSP during HSTE (RR = 4.1, P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of DDSP seen during resting endoscopy as a test for DDSP occurring during exercise were 25.5 and 95.1%, respectively (positive predictive value 0.57, negative predictive value 0.83). The results of the current study support the use of the Havemeyer system for grading laryngeal function in the resting horse, and corroborate findings of previous studies correlating resting and exercising palatal abnormalities.
Studies that use the presence of spontaneous DDSP during resting endoscopic examination as an inclusion criterion for investigating efficacy of treatments for DDSP are likely to have a low proportion of horses with false positive diagnoses.
Quantitative assessment of increased sensitivity of chronic laminitic horses to hoof tester evoked pain
Viñuela-Fernandez, I., Jones, E., McKendrick, I.J. and Molony, V. (2011) Equine Veterinary Journal. 43, 62-68
This study was performed to evaluate quantitative sensory testing (QST) of the feet of laminitic horses using apower- assisted hoof tester.
The hypothesis was that Hoof Compression Thresholds (HCTs) can be measured reliably and are consistently lower in horses with chronic laminitis than in normal horses. Hoof Compression Thresholds of chronic laminitic (n = 7) and normal horses (n = 7) were repeatedly measured using a hydraulically powered and feedback controlled hoof tester. Data from 2 tests, at 3 sites in both forefeet, during 3 sessions were collected and statistically analysed using linear mixed models.
The mean s.e. HCT for the laminitic horses was 29.6 3.5 kg/cm2 and for horses in the normal group was 59.8 4.3 kg/cm2. Residual variance was the largest of the error components and was greater (P<0.001) for the normal horses; none of the other components significantly differed between the 2 groups. Averaging of HCTs from each foot could produce a test with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.83 for the normal group and 0.87 for the laminitic group, with an estimated sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.93. This test would permit detection with 80% power and 95% confidence of a reduction of over 40% in the difference in mean HCTs between laminitic and normal horses following effective treatment provided that the experimental groups are of 9 or more horses. It was concluded that HCTs can be safely and reliably measured experimentally using this hoof tester. The level of variability found indicates that, under these conditions, treatments may need to produce at least a 40% improvement to be detected. Simplification of the hoof tester, training of the horse and repeated testing may permit the method to be used clinically to detect changes in the HCTs of individual laminitic horses but these potential improvements will require further investigation.
Measurement of HCTs can provide an additional means for assessing the effectiveness of treatments for alleviation of chronic equine laminitis.
Contemporary use of acepromazine in the anaesthetic management of male horses and ponies: A retrospective study and opinion poll.
Driessen, B., Zarucco, L., Kalir, B. and Bertolotti, L. (2011) Equine Veterinary Journal. 43, 88-98
Current use of acepromazine in the anaesthetic management of male horses and ponies and associated risks are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to explore anaesthetic acepromazine use and related adverse effects in the male horse. From the medical records of 8533 anaesthetised horses and ponies, male animals treated perianaesthetically with acepromazine were reviewed.
Demographic data, time and dose of acepromazine administration, co-administered drugs, quality of induction and recovery from anaesthesia, arterial blood pressures and occurrence of penile dysfunction were recorded. Practising ACVA and ECVAA diplomates were polled on the use of acepromazine and its effects on blood pressure and penile dysfunction in the equine.
Of all animals, 12% females and 11% males (n = 575 including 42% stallions) received perianaesthetic acepromazine, predominantly for premedication. Anaesthetic induction was smooth in 566 animals. Lowest mean arterial pressures averaged 65 9 mmHg. Recovery was good or very good in 70% of all animals and 74% stood after 1–2 attempts. In 14 horses (2.4%; 7 stallions, 7 geldings), penile prolapse occurred for 0.5–4 h and in one stallion (0.2%) for >12 but <18 h post recovery. Most surveyed anaesthesiologists use acepromazine in stallions (occasionally 63%; frequently 17%) but more frequently in geldings (occasionally 34%; frequently 59%) and mares (occasionally 38%; frequently 59%), primarily for premedication with other sedatives and analgesics.
Persistent intraoperative hypotension was not frequently reported. Only 5% of surveyed anaesthesiologists recall penile prolapse post acepromazine administration lasting for >12 h and only one recalls 3 cases of irreversible penile prolapse in 20 years of anaesthesia practice. It was concluded that the extremely low risk of permanent penile dysfunction (1 in 10,000 cases) does not justify more restricted use of acepromazine in the intact male vs. geldings and mares.